Jane's father, the Duke of Suffolk, was executed 11 days after Jane, on 23 February 1554. Lack of clear evidence for treason ruled out a trial, so Thomas was condemned instead by an Act of Attainder and beheaded on 20 March 1549. Jane Seymours family was of ancient and respectable lineage.  According to the account of her execution given in the anonymous Chronicle of Queen Jane and of Two Years of Queen Mary, which formed the basis for Raphael Holinshed's depiction, Jane gave a speech upon ascending the scaffold: Good people, I am come hither to die, and by a law I am condemned to the same. The first, called the Prayer Book Rebellion (also known as the Western rebellion) arose mainly from the imposition of church services in English, and the second, led by a tradesman called Robert Kett, mainly from the encroachment of landlords on common grazing ground. King Edward himself testified about the pocket money.  Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset was interred at St. Peter ad Vincula, Tower of London. Other members included Edward Stanley, 3rd Earl of Derby and John Bourchier, 2nd Earl of Bath. , Meanwhile, a united Council published details of Seymour's government mismanagement. , The following chart illustrates Jane's relationship to the House of Tudor and other claimants to the English throne. In this reading, the composition of the Privy Chamber shifted towards the end of 1546 in favour of the Protestant faction.  His initial successes, however, were followed by a loss of direction, as his aim of uniting the realms through conquest became increasingly unrealistic. Jane's family are just as ambitious as the B… Catherine had been on the point of accepting him when Henry VIII required her hand.  Edward summarised the charges against Somerset in his Chronicle: "ambition, vainglory, entering into rash wars in mine youth, negligent looking on Newhaven, enriching himself of my treasure, following his own opinion, and doing all by his own authority, etc.". Jane Grey is the only English monarch in the last 500 years (though whether her short reign was legitimate is disputed) of whom no proven contemporary portrait survives.  Local groups often assumed that the findings of these commissions entitled them to act against offending landlords themselves. Both Mary and Elizabeth had been named illegitimate by statute during the reign of Henry VIII after his marriages to Catherine of Aragon and Anne Boleyn had been declared void. In addition, she is the Head of the Commonwealth and Supreme Governor of the Church of England.  Seymour tried to buy his brother off with a barony, an appointment to the Lord Admiralship, and a seat on the Privy Council—but Thomas was bent on scheming for power. , In summer 1548, a pregnant Catherine Parr discovered Thomas Seymour embracing Princess Elizabeth. The will removed his half-sisters, Mary and Elizabeth, from the line of succession on account of their illegitimacy, subverting their claims under the Third Succession Act. She had an excellent humanist education and a reputation as one of the most learned young women of her day. He was senior to his ally Lisle in the peerage, and was the new king's closest relative. , The same justification for outbreaks of unrest was voiced throughout the country, not only in Norfolk and the west. Both Catalina and Anne were removed by death from rivalry. , In July 1544 he was appointed lieutenant of the realm under Catherine Parr, Henry's sixth wife and regent, during Henry's absence at Boulogne, but in August he joined the king and was present at the surrender of the town. The two most serious rebellions, which required major military intervention to put down, were in Devon and Cornwall and in Norfolk.  On 19 July 1553, Jane was imprisoned in the Tower's Gentleman Gaoler's (Jailer's) apartments, her husband in the Beauchamp Tower. , In the course of Thomas Seymour's following attainder and execution, Jane's father was lucky to stay largely out of trouble. lisby1 has uploaded 17038 photos to Flickr. The commission was chaired by Sir Thomas White, Lord Mayor of London, and Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk. , Northumberland faced a number of key tasks to consolidate his power after Edward's death. The fact, indeed, against the Queen's highness was unlawful, and the consenting thereunto by me: but touching the procurement and desire thereof by me or on my behalf, I do wash my hands thereof in innocency, before God, and the face of you, good Christian people, this day.  Whatever the case, Henry's death was followed by a lavish hand-out of lands and honours to the new power group. Through their mother, the three sisters were great-granddaughters of Henry VII; grandnieces of Henry VIII; and first cousins once removed of Edward VI, Mary I and Elizabeth I. Jane received a humanist education, studying Latin, Greek and Hebrew with John Aylmer, and Italian with Michelangelo Florio. However, Jane soon became viewed as a threat to the Crown when her father, Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk, got involved with Wyatt's rebellion against Queen Mary's intention to marry Philip II of Spain. She died in 1559. Thomas Seymour, brother of Queen Jane Seymour, final husband of Queen Katherine Parr Explore lisby1's photos on Flickr.  However, the female line continued, and Queen Elizabeth II is descended from Somerset through his grandchild by Catherine Grey. However, Edward, in a draft will ("My devise for the Succession") composed earlier in 1553, had first restricted the succession to (non-existent) male descendants of Frances Brandon and her daughters, before he named his Protestant cousin "Lady Jane and her heirs male" as his successors, probably in June 1553; the intent was to ensure his Protestant legacy, thereby bypassing Mary, who was a Roman Catholic.  A portrait believed by some experts to be of Jane was discovered in a private home in 2005. Her father was Sir John Seymour of Wolf Hall in Wiltshire; he served in the Tournai campaign of 1513 and accompanied Henry VIII to the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520.  Thirteen out of the sixteen (the others being absent) agreed to his appointment as Protector, which they justified as their joint decision "by virtue of the authority" of Henry's will. , In early February 1547, Jane was sent to live in the household of Edward VI's uncle, Thomas Seymour, who soon married Henry VIII's widow, Catherine Parr. After April 1549, a series of armed revolts broke out, fuelled by various religious and agrarian grievances. "The traitor-heroine of the Reformation", as historian Albert Pollard called her, was only 16 or 17 years old at the time of her execution. He trusted to the garrisons he established throughout the Lowlands to wear down Scottish opposition; but their pressure was soon weakened by troubles in England and abroad, and Mary was transported to France to marry Francis II in 1557. (2015) "The succession crisis of 1553 and Mary’s rise to power", in, Kewes, Paulina. Her primary supporter, her father-in-law the Duke of Northumberland, was accused of treason and executed less than a month later. , Edward Seymour's only undoubted skill was as a soldier, which he had proved on his expeditions to Scotland and in the defence of Boulogne in 1546. Lady Jane Grey (c. 1537 – 12 February 1554), also known as Lady Jane Dudley (after her marriage) and as the "Nine Days' Queen", was an English noblewoman and de facto Queen of England and Ireland from 10 July until 19 July 1553.. Jane was the great-granddaughter of Henry VII through his younger daughter Mary, and was a first cousin once removed of Edward VI. From the first, his main interest as Protector was the war against Scotland. Jane refused to name her husband Dudley as king, because that would require an Act of Parliament.  Jane then recited Psalm 51 (Have mercy upon me, O God) in English, and handed her gloves and handkerchief to her maid. To the visiting scholar Roger Ascham, who found her reading Plato, she is said to have complained: For when I am in the presence either of father or mother, whether I speak, keep silence, sit, stand or go, eat, drink, be merry or sad, be sewing, playing, dancing, or doing anything else, I must do it as it were in such weight, measure and number, even so perfectly as God made the world; or else I am so sharply taunted, so cruelly threatened, yea presently sometimes with pinches, nips and bobs and other ways (which I will not name for the honour I bear them) ... that I think myself in hell.  After a crushing victory at the Battle of Pinkie in September 1547, he set up a network of garrisons in Scotland, stretching as far north as Dundee. Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset KG PC (1500 – 22 January 1552) (also 1st Earl of Hertford, 1st Viscount Beauchamp ), also known as Edward Semel, was the eldest surviving brother of Queen Jane Seymour (d. 1537), the third wife of King Henry VIII. Lady Jane Grey (c. 1537 – 12 February 1554), also known as Lady Jane Dudley (after her marriage) and as the "Nine Days' Queen", was an English noblewoman and de facto Queen of England and Ireland from 10 July until 19 July 1553.  Seymour may have done a deal with some of the executors, who almost all received hand-outs. , While admitting to action considered unlawful, she declared that "I do wash my hands thereof in innocence". He was made a knight of the body and later a gentleman of the kings bedchamber. A more critical approach was initiated by M. L. Bush and Dale Hoak in the mid-1970s. Jane's guilt, of having treacherously assumed the title and the power of the monarch, was evidenced by a number of documents she had signed as "Jane the Quene". Jane and Guildford are buried in the Chapel of St Peter ad Vincula on the north side of Tower Green. No memorial stone was erected at their grave. The King died on 6 July 1553, but his death was not announced until four days later. Jane Seymour was the daughter of Sir John Seymour and Margery Wentworth.. Jane’s birth date is unknown, but she was probably born around 1508, most likely at the family home, Wolf Hall in Wiltshire. Her exact date of birth is uncertain; many historians agree on the long-held estimate of 1537, while others set it in the latter half of 1536 based on newer research.  He proceeded to rule largely by proclamation, calling on the Privy Council to do little more than rubber-stamp his decisions. , Referred to by the court as Jane Dudley, wife of Guildford, Jane was charged with high treason, as were her husband, two of his brothers, and the former archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer. The English ballad "The Death of Queen Jane" (Child No.  A painting in London's National Portrait Gallery was thought to be Jane for many years, but in 1996 it was confirmed to be of Catherine Parr. Both Jane and her husband were executed on 12 February 1554. Name 'Lord Edward Seymour' is per Vivian, In 1549, Paget was to remind Seymour: "Remember what you promised me in the gallery at Westminster before the breath was out of the body of the king that dead is. Most importantly, he had to isolate and, ideally, capture Mary Tudor to prevent her from gathering support. "A rare portrait of Lady Jane Grey? He was Lord Protector of England from 1547 to 1549 during the minority of his nephew King Edward VI (1547–1553). Courtiers were always desperate … Lady Jane Grey was the eldest daughter of Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk, and his wife, Frances. Despite his popularity with the common people, his policies often angered the gentry and he was overthrown. ", David Loades, "The reign of Edward VI: An historiographical survey", Vivian, Heraldic Visitations of Devon, 1895, p.702, pedigree of Seymour, William Paulet, 1st Marquess of Winchester. He became Warden of the Scottish Marches and continued in royal favour after his sister's death on 24 October 1537.  As King Edward's uncle, Thomas Seymour demanded the governorship of the king's person and a greater share of power.  In the early 20th century this line was taken by the influential A. F. Pollard, to be echoed by Edward VI's 1960s biographer W. K. Jordan.  Seymour's commissions were led by the evangelical M.P.  On 9 July Jane was informed that she was now queen, and according to her own later claims, accepted the crown only with reluctance. A horse and cart brought his remains back to the Tower, past the rooms where Jane was staying. They made clear that the Protector's power came from them, not from Henry VIII's will. , Lady Jane acted as chief mourner at Catherine Parr's funeral; Thomas Seymour showed continued interest to keep her in his household, and she returned there for about two months before he was arrested at the end of 1548. Even more than the Boleyn family, the Seymours became very well connected at the court of Henry VIII.  The final state of Henry VIII's will has occasioned controversy.  In January 1549, the council had Thomas Seymour arrested on various charges, including embezzlement at the Bristol mint.  and partly in the uncoordinated activities of the commissions he sent out in 1548 and 1549 to investigate grievances about loss of tillage, encroachment of large sheep flocks on common land, and similar issues. Italics indicate people who predeceased Edward VI; Arabic numerals indicate the line of succession to Edward VI at the time of his death according to Henry VIII's will; and Roman numerals indicate the line of succession at the time of Edward VI's death according to Edward's will. "ROGERS, Andrew (died c. 1599), of Bryanston, Dorset. It was owing to this circumstance, as well as the dignity she derived … As soon as Mary was sure of King Edward's demise, she left her residence at Hunsdon and set out to East Anglia, where she began to rally her supporters.  The will contained an "unfulfilled gifts" clause, added at the last minute, which allowed Henry's executors to freely distribute lands and honours to themselves and the court, particularly to Seymour (then known as Earl of Hertford), who became the Lord Protector of the Realm and Governor of the King's Person, and who created himself Duke of Somerset. Some historians suggest that those close to the king manipulated either him or the will itself to ensure a shareout of power to their benefit, both material and religious. Quoted in, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFSomerset1997 (, "Their aim was not to bring down government, but to help it correct the faults of local magistrates and identify the ways in which England could be reformed.  The cost of maintaining the Protector's massive armies and his permanent garrisons in Scotland also placed an unsustainable burden on the royal finances. Henry VIII's will named sixteen executors, who were to act as Edward's Council until he reached the age of 18. ", This page was last edited on 13 January 2021, at 00:35.  He is known to have done so with William Paget, private secretary to Henry VIII, and to have secured the support of Sir Anthony Browne of the Privy Chamber. Tragic Facts About Queen Jane Seymour, Henry VIII's Lost Love Historians have contrasted the efficiency of Edward Seymour's takeover of power in 1547 with the subsequent ineptitude of his rule. VI. (2017) "The 1553 succession crisis reconsidered. During this time Catherine was courted by and fell in love with Thomas Seymour, Lord High Admiral of England and the brother of the late Queen Jane Seymour, Edward VI's mother. He then found himself abruptly dismissed from the chancellorship on charges of selling off some of his offices to delegates.  Edward also announced to have his "declaration" passed in parliament in September, and the necessary writs were prepared. In the autumn he was one of the commissioners sent to Flanders to keep Emperor Charles V to the terms of his treaty with England, and in January 1545 he was placed in command at Boulogne, where on the 26th he repelled an attempt of Marshal de Biez to recapture the town. He sought to win over the Scots by those promises of autonomy, free trade, and equal privileges with England. For other people titled 1st Duke of Somerset, see.  Her sentence was to "be burned alive on Tower Hill or beheaded as the Queen pleases" (burning was the traditional English punishment for treason committed by women). The BIG Royal Family Tree Of Queen Elizabeth II: What You Need … That September, Catherine Parr died in childbirth, and Thomas Seymour promptly resumed his attentions to Elizabeth by letter, planning to marry her. In September, Parliament declared Mary the rightful successor and denounced and revoked Jane's proclamation as that of a usurper.  Edward's decision to name Jane Grey herself was possibly instigated by Northumberland.  King Edward wrote in his Chronicle that the 1549 risings began "because certain commissions were sent down to pluck down enclosures".  Their trial, by a special commission, took place on 13 November 1553, at Guildhall in the City of London. Or just an 'appallingly bad picture'?  When the 15-year-old Edward VI lay dying in the early summer of 1553, his Catholic half-sister Mary was still his heir presumptive. For reasons unknown, Henry excluded Jane's mother, Frances Grey, from the succession, and also bypassed the claims of the descendants of his elder sister, Margaret, who had married into the Scottish royal house and nobility. Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset KG PC (1500 – 22 January 1552) (also 1st Earl of Hertford, 1st Viscount Beauchamp), also known as Edward Semel, was the eldest surviving brother of Queen Jane Seymour (d. 1537), the third wife of King Henry VIII. Since then, the first Duke of Somerset has often been portrayed as an arrogant ruler, devoid of the political and administrative skills necessary for governing the Tudor state.. On the morning of 12 February 1554, the authorities took Guildford from his rooms at the Tower of London to the public execution place at Tower Hill, where he was beheaded. On 11 October, the council had Seymour arrested and brought the king to Richmond. The Privy Council switched their allegiance and proclaimed Mary queen in London, on 19 July. Jane was held prisoner in the Tower and was convicted in November 1553 of high treason, which carried a sentence of death—though Mary initially spared her life. She then blindfolded herself. He landed at Leith on 3 May 1544, captured and pillaged Edinburgh, and returned by land burning villages and castles along the way. Both positions were very desirable for they allowed personal access to the king.  , Edward VI personally supervised the copying of his will which was finally issued as letters patent on 21 June and signed by 102 notables, among them the whole Privy Council, peers, bishops, judges, and London aldermen. ", "Miniature could be second view of Lady Jane Grey", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lady_Jane_Grey&oldid=999995626, People executed by Tudor England by decapitation, People executed under the Tudors for treason against England, Heads of government who were later imprisoned, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the ODNB, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2018, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. With her head on the block, Jane spoke the last words of Jesus as recounted by Luke: "Lord, into thy hands I commend my spirit!".  In March 1547, he secured letters patent from King Edward granting him the almost monarchical right to appoint members to the Privy Council himself and to consult them only when he wished. In February 1550, John Dudley, Earl of Warwick, emerged as the leader of the Council and, in effect, as Seymour's successor. He began smuggling pocket money to King Edward, telling him that the Duke of Somerset held the purse strings too tight, making him a "beggarly king". , Seymour's takeover of power was smooth and efficient.  In the words of historian G. R. Elton, "from that moment his autocratic system was complete". Appointed Esquire of the Body to Henry VIII in 1529, he grew in favour with the king, who visited his manor at Elvetham in Hampshire in October 1535.. "Seymour, Edward, duke of Somerset (c. 1500–1552)". Northumberland set out from London with troops on 14 July to capture Mary. Jane then failed to find the block with her hands, and cried, "What shall I do?  She was fully pardoned by Mary and allowed to live at Court with her two surviving daughters.  By autumn 1549, his costly wars had lost momentum, the crown faced financial ruin, and riots and rebellions had broken out around the country.  He also urged him to throw off the Protector within two years and "bear rule as other kings do"; but Edward, schooled to defer to the council, failed to co-operate. There is no other Royal Family now in the world as magnificent as that of the Queen’s. lisby1 has uploaded 16710 photos to Flickr. Princess Diana's Siblings Earl Spencer, Lady Sarah McCorquodale … In May he was once more appointed lieutenant-general in the north to avenge the Scottish victory at the Battle of Ancrum Moor; this he did by a savage foray into Scotland in September. , In April 1547, using King Edward's support to circumvent his brother's opposition, Thomas Seymour secretly married Henry VIII's widow Catherine Parr, whose Protestant household included the 11-year-old Lady Jane Grey and the 13-year-old Princess Elizabeth.  Dark Queen (Jane Yellowrock): Hunter, Faith: 9781101991428: … Jane lived with the couple at Sudeley Castle in Gloucestershire until Catherine's death in childbirth in September 1548. HE WAS EXECUTED ON TOWER HILL AFTER PROMOTING LADY JANE GREY FOR QUEEN UPON THE DEATH OF EDWARD VI. – History of Parliament Online", https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Dictionary_of_National_Biography,_1885-1900/Peyton,_Henry%7Caccessdate=21, File:LadyElizabethSeymour Died1602 WifeOf SirRichardKnightley NortonChurch Northamptonshire.jpg, "BFI Screenonline: Henry VIII and His Six Wives (1972) Credits", Henry FitzRoy, Duke of Richmond and Somerset, Chancellors of the University of Cambridge, Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Edward_Seymour,_1st_Duke_of_Somerset&oldid=999539702, People executed under Edward VI of England, People executed by Tudor England by decapitation, Articles lacking reliable references from October 2020, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, John Seymour (1527 – 19 December 1552), sent to the, Edward Seymour, Viscount Beauchamp of Hache (12 October 1537 – 1539), known by the. 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