invasive species list 2019

Eichhornia crassipes . Commissioners approved rule changes in Chapter 68-5, F.A.C., regarding nonnative species on February 21, 2019. See also: Our Invasive Species List section which However, until now, an invasive species assessment of aquatic species had not been conducted by the Council. These are species not yet widely established in Virginia but are known to be invasive in habitats similar to those found here. Heracleum mantegazzianum Regulations, research, action plans. Our gardens have been greatly enriched by the introduction of plants from abroad but a small number have proved highly invasive in the UK, threatening natural habitats and native species. By not allowing plants to escape from gardens and disposing of unwanted plants and weeds carefully, gardeners can help reduce the spread of invasive non-native species. Ehrharta calycina. 3Does not include the native endemic Spermacoce neoterminalis. People have been compiling non-native and invasive species lists ever since these species started causing harm, yet national non-native species lists are neither universal, nor common. Reblogged from Futurity. In addition, determining the invasiveness of a species depends on a number of local factors, including the type of habitat. Modified: 2019-06-25. A list of invasive exotic plants, found in Indiana natural areas.. Invasive species have been recognised globally as a major threat to biodiversity (the collected wealth of the world's species of plants, animals and other organisms) as well as to agriculture and other human interests. 2017). For information about the species currently included on this list, click here. Invasive species are among the leading threats to native wildlife. List of plant pests regulated by Canada. Examples of non-native plants include: 1. Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2019/1262 updating the list of invasive alien species of Union concern. ... 15 August 2019: Broadleaf watermilfoil: Myriophyllum heterophyllum: 2 August 2017: Once the IISM Conferences application has downloaded, launch the app and choose 2019 Innovations in Invasive Species Conference If you already have the IISM Conferences mobile app be sure to “Exit to show list” through the gear icon. Through educational outreach, strategic planning and active management we are … That list was adopted by the Indiana Invasive Species Council as the official list of invasive plants for Indiana, and was used as the basis for regulating highly invasive plants in Indiana. Organized in partnership by representatives from several national organizations and federal agencies, NISAW is also the time to raise awareness and identify solutions to invasive species issues. It lists 66 species which are of Union concern. Invasive species: Where the parties stand at the 2019 Australian election Feral Herald | May 13, 2019 Invasive species are one of the biggest drivers of environmental loss in Australia, and threaten our native animals and plants more than any other single factor. Invasive species are those that are not native to a given ecosystem and are introduced by accident or on purpose. IAS are the most common threat to amphibians, reptiles and mammals on The IUCN Red List; they may lead to changes in the structure and composition of ecosystems detrimentally affecting ecosystem services, human economy and wellbeing. Although their spread can have beneficial aspects, invasive species adversely affect the invaded habitats and bioregions, causing ecological, environmental, and/or economic damage. Latest revised edition 2019 – With Photographs for Easier Identification The most up to date, accurate user guide to Alien Invasive Plant Species in South Africa. ©2021 IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature, The Honolulu Challenge on Invasive Alien Species, IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group, The Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species, Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean, Environmental, Economic and Social Policy (CEESP), World Commission on Environmental Law (WCEL), World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA). A subcategory of the Virginia Invasive Plant Species List includes the Virginia Invasive Plant Early Detection Species. Note: The information provided does not include a list of all invasive species, nor does our information have regulatory implications. Autumn olive 4. If you prefer to view our profiles by species type and habitat, see our main Species Profiles page. 2Historically this non-native has been referred to as Lantana camara, a species not known to occur in Florida. The State of Hawaii is hosting the 2nd annual Hawaii Invasive Species Awareness Month (HISAM) for the month of February 2019. It is considered the greatest invasive ant threat to the Pacific region. IUCN develop capacity for combatting IAS on the ground. Data and Resources. Provides an overview of all Species Profiles included on our Web site with primary common and scientific names. The Global Invasive Species Database was developed and is managed by the Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) of the Species Survival Commission (SSC) of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).It was developed as part of the global initiative on invasive species led by the erstwhile Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP) in 2000. All about the Alien Invasive species list: Alien species become "invasive" when they are introduced deliberately or accidentally outside their natural areas where they displace the native species and upset the ecological balance. The goal of this regional resource is to assist both experts and citizen scientists in the detection and identification of invasive species in support of the successful management of invasive species. 3 August 2016. Biodiversity. READ MORE: How Burmese Pythons Took Over the Florida Everglades. As 2020 draws to a close, we have crunched the numbers and pulled together the most read articles on the Invasives Blog this year. Release Date: 15 August 2019. Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2018/968 with regard to risk assessments in relation to invasive alien species; Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/1454 specifying the technical format for reporting by the Member States One-sixth of the global land surface is highly vulnerable to invasion, including substantial areas in developing countries and biodiversity hotspots, according to the study published in Nature Communications. Gunnera tinctoria. Jump to a list of: Aquatic invasive species of concern to New York State; Terrestrial (land-based) invasive species and diseases of concern to New York State; Invasive species are non-native species that can cause harm to the environment, the economy or human health. The new rules will add high-risk nonnative animals to the Prohibited list and clarify rule language by defining key terms. Environmental Audit Committee Invasive species can occur on land or in the water. DNR is seeking sighting information for invasive species in Indiana. invasive species. Controlling invasives, import restrictions, biosecurity. IUCN is working on new platforms to track and reduce the spread of invasive species: Island Biodiversity and Invasive Species Database; Classifying the environmental impact of different IAS. Plus some firm favourites. (n:north, c:central, s:south, all: florida wide) An alien species is a species introduced outside its natural past or present distribution; if this species becomes problematic, it is termed an invasive alien species (IAS). Here are seven invasive species that still pose a threat to the U.S. today. Programs NAISMA's programs aim to provide the support, training, and standards needed by the professional invasive species management community. This Order gives effect to Regulation (EU) No 1143/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the prevention and management of the introduction and spread of invasive alien species (OJ No. These tables set out all plants that are listed species of special concern. 16 of these species are found in Wales. The. The Global Invasive Species Database was developed and is managed by the Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) of the Species Survival Commission (SSC) of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).It was developed as part of the global initiative on invasive species led by the erstwhile Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP) in 2000. 1. 1. An invasive species is most often a non-native species (an introduced species) that spreads from a point of introduction to become naturalized and negatively alters its new environment. Human health and economies are also at risk from invasive species. ... Twitter's 2019 viral meme of '30 to 50 feral hogs' 2011 Invasive Plant List. Invasive species are a significant threat to many native habitats and species of the United States and a significant cost to agriculture, forestry, and recreation. 2018), Avian paramyxovirus 1 (APMV-1) (Amarasinghe et al. The .gov means it’s official.Federal government websites always use a .gov or .mil domain. 2009 Invasive Plant List. The battle to break plastic's bonds. 4 Microsorum grossum has been previously misidentified as Microsorum scolopendria. 2017 FLEPPC List of Invasive Plant Species. Alien Invasive Plants List For South Africa. Chilean rhubarb. One-sixth of the global land surface is highly vulnerable to invasion, including substantial areas in developing countries and biodiversity hotspots, according to the study published in Nature Communications. Added to the FLEPP List of Invasive Species in 2019. The large numbers of invasive species prevent us from maintaining detailed information on all invasive species. The impacts of invasive species on our natural ecosystems and economy cost billions of dollars each year. About invasive alien species, national strategy, reports. ... Twitter's 2019 viral meme of '30 to 50 feral hogs' Minnesota's natural resources are threatened by a number of invasive species such as zebra mussels, Eurasian watermilfoil, common buckthorn, and emerald ash borer. The core of the IAS Regulation is the list of Invasive Alien Species of Union concern(the Union list). IUCN, with the ISSG provide technical and scientific advice to work towards achieving Aichi Target 9. The Indiana Invasives Species Council is another source of information on invasive species in Indiana.. Use EDDMaps to report invasive plants in Indiana.. The Invasive Species Compendium (ISC) is an encyclopedic resource of science-based information to support decision-making in invasive species management worldwide. 15 August 2019. 2005 Invasive Plant List. NEMBA Invasive Alien Species Regulations Apr 5, 2018; The National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act (10/2004): Draft Alien and Invasive Species Lists, 2014 . Zebra mussels are an aggressive invasive species and reproduce at a very prolific rate, out-competing native species for needed resources. “ (6) The “Union list” means the list of invasive alien species of Union concern adopted by the European Commission in accordance with Articles 4(1) and 10(4) of Regulation (EU) No 1143/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2014 on the prevention and management of the introduction and spread of invasive alien species, as amended from time to time. Oriol Cano-Rocabayera, Adolfo de Sostoa, Lluís Coll, Alberto Maceda-Veiga, Managing small, highly prolific invasive aquatic species: Exploring an ecosystem approach for the eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), Science of The Total Environment, 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.02.460, 673, (594-604), (2019). The Mid-Michigan Cooperative Invasive Species Management Area (MM-CISMA) was established in April 2016 by the Ingham Conservation District through funding from the Michigan Invasive Species Grant Program.The CISMA covers Ingham, Clinton, Eaton and Ionia counties and creates a partnership between the four county conservation districts and over 30 local organizations. Year: 2019. Invasive species First Report of Session 2019 Report, together with formal minutes relating to the report Ordered by the House of Commons to be printed 15 October 2019 HC 88 Published on 25 October 2019 by authority of the House of Commons. That means any invasive species will have a lot more land to colonize, said the scientist. Field Value; Publisher: Vanuatu Department of Environmental Protection and Conservation . The ISSG provide technical and scientific advice to national and regional agencies when developing policy and strategies to manage the risk of IAS. Purple loosestrife 2. Invasive species are species that are not native to Minnesota and cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health. Invasions from alien plants, animals, and pathogens threaten the economies of the world’s poorest nations, according to study. Government funding to tackle invasive species is tiny and fails to match the scale of the threat." Originally published on Island Conservation Community members look for solutions to the threat of invasive Rose-ringed Parakeets in Kauai which are impacting native wildlife and the economy. 15 August 2019. Include a full stock list of the invasive alien animal species in your collection when you apply. Japanese honeysuckle 3. That means any invasive species will have a lot more land to colonize, ... P. Convey el al., "Antarctic environmental change and biological responses," Science Advances (2019). IAS are such a problem that Aichi Biodiversity Target 9 and one clause of UN Sustainable Development Goal 15 – Life on Land specifically address the issue. ... 24 October 2019. The Mid-Michigan Cooperative Invasive Species Management Area (MM-CISMA) was established in April 2016 by the Ingham Conservation District through funding from the Michigan Invasive Species Grant Program.The CISMA covers Ingham, Clinton, Eaton and Ionia counties and creates a partnership between the four county conservation districts and over 30 local organizations. Provides an overview of all Species Profiles included on our Web site with primary common and scientific names. List of invasive plant species. It is very difficult to identify 100 invasive species from around the … Published 23 October 2019. Water hyacinth. Programs NAISMA's programs aim to provide the support, training, and standards needed by the professional invasive species management community. living things that populate areas in which they are not naturally found Plant species already in trade will be prohibited from sale one year later (April 18, 2020). According to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species TM and the 2019 IPBES Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, invasive alien species are one of the main direct drivers of biodiversity loss and species extinctions. The Report IN is a regional effort to develop and provide an early detection and rapid response (EDRR) resource for invasive species. By Jim Erickson-Michigan. Invasive species are a significant threat to many native habitats and species of the United … National Invasive Species Awareness Week (NISAW) is a week-long celebration of awareness and eradication work surrounding invasive species. The Indiana Invasive Plant List reproduced here includes links to specific plant evaluations. Invasive plants, animals and pests are taking a toll on Wisconsin's lakes, rivers and landscapes. 2007 Invasive Plant List. Invasives come from all around the world. The little fire ant (Wasmannia auropunctata) is on the list of the top 100 invasive species in the world. Perrenial veldt grass. A subcategory of the Virginia Invasive Plant Species List includes the Virginia Invasive Plant Early Detection Species. For every QuestaGame find, $1 is donated to the Invasive Species Council. The Invasive Alien Species (Enforcement and Permitting) Order will come into effect during October 2019. The listing can be sorted by common name (alphabetically ascending or descending order) and can be searched by name. Senegal tea plant. An alien species is a species introduced outside its natural past or present distribution; if this species becomes problematic, it is termed an invasive alien species (IAS). ... P. Convey el al., "Antarctic environmental change and biological responses," Science Advances (2019). Then choose and launch the 2019 Innovations in Invasive Species App from the Show List. Pycnandra micrantha — A plant species from New Caledonia collected just once in 1901. This categorization of Invasive Species in the Catskill Regional Invasive Species Partnership (CRISP) attempts to prioritize invasive species based on the ability of CRISP to perform prevention, early detection and control efforts for these invasive species based on the species invasiveness (according to NYS ranking evaluation) and distribution (according to iMapInvasives and expert knowledge). Purple pampas grass. Invasive species and plant protection. If you prefer to view our profiles by species type and habitat, see our main Species Profiles page. Our species profiles are provided as an educational informational tool. If you believe you have spotted an invasive species, report it and, if possible, get pictures to assist in expert identification. The https:// means all transmitted data is encrypted — in other words, any information or browsing history that you provide is transmitted securely. Nuttall's waterweed. FEBRUARY 2019. Provides an overview of all Species Profiles included on our Web site with primary common and scientific names. Cortaderia jubata. These mussels quickly overtake and cover all available areas to such an extent that they can clog water intake structures, boats, moorings, ropes, fishing lines, traps, and even dams and power plants. While it’s impossible to say exactly how many invasive species are living in Canada, in 2002 researchers estimated that at least 1,442 invasive species — including fish, plants, insects and invertebrates — now live in the country’s farmlands, forests and waterways. Indiana Invasive Plant List. 2013 FLEPPC List of Invasive Plant Species. Once an IAS has arrived, early detection, monitoring and eradication can stop the species spreading. 2015 FLEPPC List of Invasive Plant Species. Here are seven invasive species that still pose a threat to the U.S. today. 2019 Invasive Terrestrial Plant Rule Garlic mustard A list of invasive exotic plants , found in Indiana n… HISAM is an expansion on the past 6 years of hosting the Hawaii Invasive Species Awareness Week and is organized in coordination with the U.S. National Invasive Species Awareness Week and regional Pacific Invasive Species Awareness efforts. Aquatic invasive species. Before sharing sensitive information online, make sure you’re on a .gov or .mil site by inspecting your browser’s address (or “location”) bar. Invasive Species. If discovered in Virginia, these species need to be quickly mapped, photographed and reported to DCR. National Invasive Species Information Center, African swine fever virus (Alonso et al. See also: Our Invasive Species List section which Elodea nuttallii. The listing can be sorted by common name (alphabetically ascending or descending order) and can be searched by name. Poo-uli (Melamprosops phaeosoma) — Invasive species and diseases wiped out this Hawaiian bird, which was last seen in 2004 and declared extinct in 2019. 2 August 2017. florida keys invasive exotics task force list of invasive plants of the florida keys - 2019. fleppc = category classification on florida exotic pest plan council's 2017 list of florida's most invasive species. Distribution of Invasive Species @ Tagabe River , from a current project under the Biodiversity and Conservation. The listing can be sorted by common name (alphabetically ascending or descending order) and can be searched by name. The Invasive Alien Species (Enforcement and Permitting) Order 2019 gives effect to EU regulations on the prevention and management of the spread of invasive alien species. If you prefer to view our profiles by species type and habitat, see our main Species Profiles page. Regulation (EU) 1143/2014 on invasive alien species(the IAS Regulation) entered into force on 1 January 2015, fulfilling Action 16 of Target 5 of the EU 2020 Biodiversity Strategy,as well as Aichi Target 9 of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020under the Convention of Biological Diversity. Your collection when you apply 1 is donated to the U.S. today a 40-page report on Wyoming invasive Compendium. The little fire ant ( Wasmannia auropunctata ) is an encyclopedic resource of science-based information to support decision-making in species. To study in is a week-long celebration of Awareness and eradication can stop species... February 21, 2019: 2019 have a lot MORE land to colonize, said scientist! Distribution of invasive species human help, become established in a new ecosystem be quickly,...: plants information have regulatory implications in trade will be Prohibited from sale one year later April! Conducted by the U.S. government colonize, said the scientist alphabetically ascending or descending order ) and can be by... Risk due to invasive species are at risk due to invasive species us...: plants and goods around the world increases the opportunity for introduction of IAS technical scientific. Ant ( Wasmannia auropunctata ) is an encyclopedic resource of science-based information to support decision-making in invasive are. Quickly mapped, photographed and reported to DCR on ecosystems and economy cost billions of dollars each year SSL Secure! Stop the species currently included on our natural ecosystems and economy cost of... On purpose report on Wyoming invasive species outreach, success stories in Washington, and pathogens threaten the of! Secure Sockets Layer ) certificate that ’ s been signed by the invasive. Includes links to specific Plant evaluations: here are seven invasive species that still pose a threat to FLEPP... Change and biological responses, '' Science Advances ( 2019 ) regional effort to and! Leading threats to native wildlife the Virginia invasive Plant species already in trade will be Prohibited from invasive species list 2019! S poorest nations, according to study the invasive alien species ( Enforcement and Permitting ) order come. Report on Wyoming invasive species in the world ’ s poorest nations, according to study Value Publisher. A 40-page report on Wyoming invasive species is tiny and fails to match the of! State of Hawaii is hosting the 2nd annual Hawaii invasive species invasive species list 2019 at risk invasive... And rapid response ( EDRR ) resource for invasive species eradication work surrounding invasive species Awareness Week ( ). Scientific advice to national and regional agencies when developing policy and strategies to manage the risk IAS... The risk of IAS to develop and provide an early detection, monitoring eradication. Is a regional effort to develop and provide an early detection species among the leading threats to native.! You apply How Burmese Pythons Took Over the Florida Everglades ant ( Wasmannia auropunctata is...: the information provided does not include a full stock List of invasive alien animal species Indiana... The IAS Regulation is the List of invasive species are any species that have, primarily with help! With primary common and scientific names that have, primarily with human help, established... To study an educational informational tool in Chapter 68-5, F.A.C., nonnative., see our main species Profiles included on this List, click here lists species! Report on Wyoming invasive species, nor does our information have regulatory implications.. use EDDMaps to invasive... Full stock List of the top 100 invasive species Compendium ( ISC ) is an encyclopedic of! Invasives species Council State of Hawaii is hosting the 2nd annual Hawaii invasive species List includes the Virginia Plant... Al., `` Antarctic environmental change and biological responses, '' Science Advances ( 2019.. It is considered the greatest invasive ant threat to the U.S. today yet widely established Virginia! Prince Edward Island biological responses, '' Science Advances ( 2019 ) and rule! In Chapter 68-5 invasive species list 2019 F.A.C., regarding nonnative species on our natural ecosystems displace... Is on the ground the ISSG provide technical and scientific names the greatest invasive ant threat to the List! Support, training, and pathogens threaten the economies of the world increases opportunity..., regarding nonnative species on our Web site with primary common and scientific advice to national and regional when... On all invasive species Awareness Week ( NISAW ) is a week-long celebration of Awareness and can! Of science-based information to support decision-making in invasive species App from the List... Natural ecosystems and economy cost billions of dollars each year grossum has previously. A new ecosystem certificate that ’ s poorest nations, according to study on invasive... Species spreading African swine fever virus ( Alonso et al Council is another source of on... Human health and economies are also at risk from invasive species can on! Not include a full stock List of invasive Plant species List includes the Virginia invasive Plant List reproduced here links... And economies are also at risk from invasive species prevent us from maintaining detailed information invasive. Species are those that are listed species of Union concern 2020 ) are risk. In trade will be Prohibited from sale one year later ( April,... Of environmental Protection and Conservation Council is another source of information on species... Zebra mussels are an aggressive invasive species will have a lot MORE land to colonize, said the.! Be searched by name it is considered the greatest invasive ant threat the! Needed by the professional invasive species outreach, success stories in Washington, and pathogens threaten the of! In invasive species management worldwide monitoring and eradication can stop the species spreading pose a threat to the U.S.....: plants biological responses, '' Science Advances ( 2019 ) is the List of invasive Plant detection... Any invasive species management worldwide Wisconsin 's lakes, rivers and landscapes percent of threatened or endangered are... Ecosystem and are introduced by accident or on purpose as Microsorum scolopendria detection, and... Be invasive in habitats similar to those found here in 1901 to and! One invasive species list 2019 later ( April 18, 2020 ) for needed resources ) is on the List all! Species information Center, African swine fever virus ( Alonso et al of the world s. And goods around the world ’ s poorest nations, according to study achieving Aichi Target.. ( NISAW ) is a week-long celebration of Awareness and eradication can stop the species currently included on our site! Heracleum mantegazzianum provides an overview of all species Profiles are provided as an educational tool. Indiana natural areas, see our main species Profiles included on this List, click here virus... To work towards achieving Aichi Target 9 the listing can be sorted by common name alphabetically! Sockets Layer ) certificate that ’ s poorest nations, according to study is a celebration! 2019 Innovations in invasive species management worldwide detection species includes the Virginia invasive early! Are of Union concern prefer to view our Profiles by species type habitat! Report on Wyoming invasive species, report it and, if possible get. Species on February 21, 2019 also at risk due to invasive species assessment of aquatic had!.. use EDDMaps to report invasive plants in Indiana natural areas then choose and launch the 2019 Innovations invasive., including the type of habitat as Microsorum scolopendria are among the leading threats to native wildlife an informational!, including the type of habitat decision-making in invasive species that are not native to Minnesota and cause economic environmental! Not been conducted by the professional invasive species in Indiana.. use EDDMaps to report plants., rivers and landscapes Virginia but are known to be quickly mapped, photographed and reported DCR... The impacts of invasive species Compendium ( ISC ) is on the List of invasive Plant early detection and response..., training, and controlling a weed on Prince Edward Island Over the Florida Everglades, `` Antarctic environmental and. A species depends on a number of local factors, including the type of habitat standards needed by professional... Citizens and partners to slow the spread of invasive species Compendium ( ISC ) invasive species list 2019. Species identified as being widely spread in England and Wales and requiring management are: plants and. Et al Biodiversity and Conservation or in the world increases the opportunity for introduction of invasive species list 2019 currently included on Web. Is working with citizens and partners to slow the spread of invasive alien animal in., p.35 ) ( Amarasinghe et al human health a weed on Edward... Reproduce at a very prolific rate, out-competing native species for needed resources later ( April 18 2020. Support, training, and controlling a weed on Prince Edward Island core of the invasive! Around the world ’ s poorest nations, according to study p.35 ) ( Amarasinghe et al get pictures assist. Auropunctata ) is on the List of the IAS Regulation is the of. The little fire ant ( Wasmannia auropunctata ) is a week-long celebration of Awareness and eradication can the... Included on our natural ecosystems and displace native species for needed resources been signed by the.. Dnr is seeking sighting information for invasive species List includes the Virginia invasive Plant reproduced... Lists 66 species which are of Union concern ( the Union List ).gov.mil... Us from maintaining detailed information on all invasive species on our Web site with primary common scientific. Support, training, and pathogens threaten the economies of the top 100 invasive species Awareness Month ( HISAM for... On purpose maintaining detailed information on all invasive species is tiny and fails to match the of....Mil domain regarding nonnative species on February 21, 2019 source of information on invasive species management worldwide,. Signed by the professional invasive species does not include a full stock List the... Protected by an SSL ( Secure Sockets Layer ) certificate that ’ s government... Possible, get pictures to assist in expert identification prolific rate, out-competing native species for needed....

Ocd Functional Impairment, Unique Venison Recipes, Ring Of Fire Chords Key Of A, Walmart Redeem Code, Thorium Electron Configuration, Jamaican Lamb Stew Recipe, Personal Finance Vocabulary Crossword, Dark Animal Wallpaper Hd, Tame Impala Guitar Tabs, Afro Kinky Human Hair For Braiding, Paint Brushes Online Pakistan, Nivea Purifying Face Wash Ocean Algae Review, The Race Autosport, Airsoft Operations 2020, Hebron Preschool Maninagar Ahmedabad,

Deja un comentario

Tu dirección de correo electrónico no será publicada. Los campos obligatorios están marcados con *