how were the six counties of northern ireland chosen

[17] Throughout the 16th century, Ulster was viewed by the English as being "underpopulated" and undeveloped. The settlers were also required to maintain arms and attend an annual military 'muster'.[45]. They were granted around 3000 acres (12 km²) each, on condition that they settle a minimum of 48 adult males (including at least 20 families), who had to be English-speaking and Protestant. By the time the process of turning local Irish kingdoms into baronies occurred throughout the whole of Ulster by the early 17th century as part of the Plantation of Ulster, it was already being used for taxation and administrative purposes. The plan for the plantation was determined by two factors. However, in 1608 Sir Cahir O'Doherty of Inishowen launched a rebellion, capturing and burning the town of Derry. A colonization of Ulster had been proposed since the end of the Nine Years' War. [55], Historian Thomas Bartlett suggests that Irish hostility to the plantation may have been muted in the early years, as there were much fewer settlers arriving than expected. These are contiguous with the six administrative counties and two county boroughs, established by the 1898 Local Government Act. Outside government, the counties are used for cultural purposes, for example in the Gaelic Athletic Association. The London guilds planning to fund the Plantation of Ulster switched and backed the London Virginia Company instead. Republicans, particularly supporters of the Provisional IRA referred to the conflict as ‘the war’, and portrayed it as a guerrilla war of … [2] The total number of counties in the island of Ireland is 32, with Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland often respectively called "the Six Counties" and "the Twenty-Six Counties", especially by Irish nationalists opposed to the partition of Ireland. The Wars eliminated the last major Catholic landowners in Ulster.[67]. These six counties are those that chose to become separate, independent entities after opting out of the Irish Free State in 1922. The wars saw Irish rebellion against the planters, twelve years of bloody war, and ultimately the re-conquest of the province by the English parliamentary New Model Army that confirmed English and Protestant dominance in the province. 2. Unlike Southern Ireland, which would become the Irish Free State in 1922, the majority of Northern Ireland's population were unionists, who wanted to remain within the United Kingdom. The county of Antrim is around 1,176 square miles (3,046 square kilometers) in size and home to a population of about 618,000. It was merged into County Antrimin 1777. In the 1630s, Presbyterians in Scotland staged a rebellion against Charles I for trying to impose Anglicanism. Richard English has written that, "not all of those of British background in Ireland owe their Irish residence to the Plantations... yet the Plantation did produce a large British/English interest in Ireland, a significant body of Irish Protestants who were tied through religion and politics to English power. Moreover, the planters were barred from selling their lands to any Irishman and were required to build defences against any possible rebellion or invasion. It has two cities, Belfast and Lisburn, five large towns, seven small towns, five intermediate settlements, 11 villages and 25 hamlets. The Old Counties of Northern Ireland The Six Historic Counties of Northern Ireland (Ulster) and their armorial bearings or 'Coats of Arms' Select the County you require from the County Arms below and the other Local Authorities within the chosen region will be displayed. Petty violence and sabotage against the planters was rife, and many Irish came to identify with the wood-kern who attacked settlements and ambushed settlers. [49] The settler population grew rapidly, as just under half of the planters were women. STRAIGHTGETEM 05/19/2017 Geography High School +5 pts. "[64], In the summer of 1642, the Scottish Parliament sent some 10,000 soldiers to quell the Irish rebellion. Madden, R.R. These are areas that have an appointed Lord Lieutenant—the representative of the British monarch. Antrim, Blathewyc, Cragferus, Coulrath, del Art, Dun, Ladcathel, and Twescard, the seven counties that formed the Earldom of Ulsterin … Northern Ireland is one of the four countries of the United Kingdom, (although it is also described by official sources as a province or a region), situated in the north-east of the island of Ireland.It was created as a separate legal entity on 3 May 1921, under the Government of Ireland Act 1920. In the two officially unplanted counties of Antrim and Down, substantial Presbyterian Scots settlement had been underway since 1606. The British government intended that clerics from England and the Pale would convert the native population to Anglicanism. [1] The other two local government areas were the urban county boroughs of Derry[n 1] (geographically part of the County of Londonderry) and Belfast (geographically split between the counties of Antrim and Down). Lenihan, Padraig, Consolidating Conquest, Ireland 1603–1727, Pearson, Essex 2008. This was of particular concern to James VI of Scotland when he became King of England, since he knew Scottish instability could jeopardise his chances of ruling both kingdoms effectively. Many British Protestant settlers went to Virginia or New England in America rather than to Ulster. Former counties which formed part of the six modern counties of Northern Ireland: 1. Northern Ireland consists of six counties: Tyrone, Fermanagh, Antrim, Derry, Down and Armagh. Answered What happened to the six counties of Northern Ireland when the Republic of Ireland was formed? Canny, Nicholas, Making Ireland British 1580–1650, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2003. However another 4,000 Scottish adult males had settled in unplanted Antrim and Down, giving a total settler population of about 19,000. Before the plantation, Ulster had been the most Gaelic province of Ireland, as it was the least anglicized and the most independent of English control. According to the Lord Deputy Chichester, the plantation would 'separate the Irish by themselves...[so they would], in heart in tongue and every way else become English', Padraig Lenihan, Consolidating Conquest, Ireland, 1603–1727, p43, NIcholas Canny, Making Ireland British 189–200, Padraig Lenihan, Consolidating Conquest, Ireland 1603–1727, p48, All previous figures from Canny, Making Ireland British, p 211, Gillespie, Raymond. The same was attempted in Ireland, where most Scots colonists were Presbyterian. What are now the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland were formed in 1922. [5], Baronies were used for many records from the 17th to 19th centuries such as: the Civil Survey; Petty's Down Survey; the Books of Survey and Distribution; the 19th century valuation books and census returns. Northern Ireland is divided into six counties, namely: Antrim, Armagh, Down, Fermanagh, Londonderry[n 1] and Tyrone. In 1609, Chichester had 1,300 former Gaelic soldiers deported from Ulster to serve in the Swedish Army. James had been King of Scotland before he also became King of England and needed to reward his subjects in Scotland with land in Ulster to assure them they were not being neglected now that he had moved his court to London. There was no such place as Northern Ireland up to then. Livery companies from the City of London were coerced into investing in the project, as were City of London guilds which were granted land on the west bank of the River Foyle, to build their own city on the site of Derry (renamed Londonderry after them) as well as lands in County Coleraine. [35], From 1609 onwards, British Protestant immigrants arrived in Ulster through direct importation by Undertakers to their estates and also by a spread to unpopulated areas, through ports such as Derry and Carrickfergus. The settlement was to be completed within three years. [57], By the 1630s it is suggested that the plantation was settling down with "tacit religious tolerance", and in every county Old Irish were serving as royal officials and members of the Irish Parliament. Carrickfergus was formerly a county of itself, it extended further than the modern borough of Carrickfergus. "[74], However, going on surnames, others have concluded that Protestant and Catholic are poor guides to whether people's ancestors were settlers or natives of Ulster in the 17th century. There had been very few towns in Ulster before the Plantation. That same year, English army officer Toby Caulfield wrote that "there is not a more discontented people in Christendom" than the Ulster Irish. Charles I subsequently raised an army largely composed of Irish Catholics, and sent them to Ulster in preparation to invade Scotland. [6] Between the late 13th and early 14th centuries it was subdivided into multiple shires based around centres of Norman power such as Antrim, Carrickfergus, and Newtownards. The six counties of Northern Ireland are the counties of Antrim, Fermanagh, Tyrone, Down, Armagh and Londonderry. [41] However, in a few heavily populated lowland areas (such as parts of north Armagh) it is likely that some population displacement occurred. "[63] He also believed that "Here, if anywhere, the mentality of siege was born, as the warning bonfires blazed from hilltop to hilltop, and the beating drums summoned men to the defence of castles and walled towns crowded with refugees. They settled first mostly in Pennsylvania and western Virginia, from where they moved southwest into the backcountry of upland territories in the South, the Ozarks and the Appalachian Mountains.[70]. 1613 – Ulster after the creation of County Londonderry, from the merger of County Coleraine, the North West Liberties of Londonderry (1), Loughinsholin (2), and North East Liberties of Coleraine (3). A large number of them returned to Scotland as a result. [62], The massacres made a lasting impression on psyche of the Ulster Protestant population. Each county is divided into a number of baronies, midway between a county and a parish. Administrative geography of the United Kingdom, Metropolitan and Non-metropolitan counties, List of administrative divisions by country, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Counties_of_Northern_Ireland&oldid=998321360, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Grand jury (to 1898) / County council (1899–1973), In 1549, Ulster itself was called a county containing the baronies of, 308,645 = 304,526 county Antrim + 4118.93 part of Belfast (all wards except Ormeau, Pottinger, Victoria), 248,905 = 246,624 county Down + 2281.23 part of Belfast (Ormeau, Pottinger, Victoria wards), 905.29 hectares of Belfast tidal area is excluded from both counties, This page was last edited on 4 January 2021, at 21:24. There are 32 counties on the island The Republic of Ireland comprises 26 counties, while Northern Ireland accounts for the remaining 6 counties. Religion, along with land dispossession, rights and sovereignty issues, became a source of conflict and uprisings. The principal landowners were to be "Undertakers", wealthy men from England and Scotland who undertook to import tenants from their own estates. The legacy of the Plantation remains disputed. The brief rebellion was ended by Sir Richard Wingfield at the Battle of Kilmacrennan. Counties in Ireland … Home of Bushmills Whiskey which is made in the town of Bushmills 2. The other regional language is Ulster Scots, a variation of English which is spoken in Northern Ireland and is similar to Scots spoken in Scotland. Stewart states that "The fear which it inspired survives in the Protestant subconscious as the memory of the Penal Laws or the Famine persists in the Catholic. In revenge for the massacres of Scottish colonists, the army committed many atrocities against the Catholic population. In this way, it was hoped that a defensible new community composed entirely of loyal British subjects would be created.[33]. The original partition based on the current six counties of Northern was drawn up under Lloyd George's Government of Ireland Act 1920 selected the boundaries of Northern Ireland as "the maximum area within which Unionists could be expected to have a safe majority". Whereas in the 1660s, they made up some 20% of Ulster's population (though 60% of its British population) by 1720 they were an absolute majority in Ulster, with up to 50,000 having arrived during the period 1690-1710. The Plantation of Ulster (Irish: Plandáil Uladh; Ulster-Scots: Plantin o Ulstèr)[1] was the organised colonisation (plantation) of Ulster – a province of Ireland – by people from Great Britain during the reign of King James I. [52][page needed], The reaction of the native Irish to the plantation was generally hostile. After the 1567 death and 1570 attainder of Shane O'Neill, much of Clandeboy was added to the surviving English enclaves to form the new counties of Antrim and Down, preparing for an abortive private English plantation. In addition to, and sometimes instead of, its official name, several other names are used for the region. This meant that, rather than settling the planters in isolated pockets of land confiscated from the Irish, all of the land would be confiscated and then redistributed to create concentrations of British settlers around new towns and garrisons. Many colonists who survived rushed to the seaports and went back to Great Britain. Based in Carrickfergus, the Scottish army fought against the rebels until 1650. In the northwest of Ulster, the colonists around Derry and east Donegal organised the Laggan Army in self-defence. Following an extremely costly series of campaigns by the English, including massacre and use of ruthless scorched earth tactics, the war ended in 1603 with the surrender of the Gaelic alliance and the Treaty of Mellifont. This was a failure and sparked conflict with the Irish, in which the English massacred the O'Neills of Clannaboy and massacred the MacDonnells of Antrim. [30], Six counties were involved in the official plantation – Donegal, Londonderry, Tyrone, Fermanagh, Cavan and Armagh. They were known jointly as The Honourable The Irish Society. They formed local majorities of the population in the Finn and Foyle valleys (around modern County Londonderry and east Donegal), in north Armagh and in east Tyrone. All sides committed atrocities against civilians in this war, exacerbating the population displacement begun by the Plantation. [28] Davies used this as a means to confiscate land, when other means failed. 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